Shirish Gadgeel, MD of Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI gives an overview of his presentation focused on the use of rociletinib and osimertinib in EGFR-mutated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). T790M is the most common mutation in patients with EGFR-positive NSCLC treated with front-line EGFR TKIs. Rociletinib and osimertinib both target the T790M mutation and both showed evidence of clinical evidence in clinical trials. Osimertinib was approved by the FDA in October 2015. Rociletinib did not receive the FDA approval and the development of the drug has been discontinued. Dr Gadgeel’s presentation at WCLC focuses on NSCLC patients with T790M mutation, who were initially treated with rociletinib and then moved to osimertinib after rociletinib’s discontinuation. Dr Gadgeel highlights that osimertinib showed a clinical benefit with a response rate of 33% and 1 year survival of 72%. In addition, osimertinib was shown to be effective in patients with CNS metastases with a response rate of 20%. This difference in activity between the two T790M inhibitors could be due to osimertinib being a more potent inhibitor of T790M. Recorded at the 2016 World Congress of Lung Cancer (WCLC) of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) in Vienna, Austria.