When can checkpoint inhibitors be used to treat urothelial carcinoma?

Joaquim Bellmunt, MD, PhD, from the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, gives an overview of checkpoint inhibitors for urothelial carcinoma treatment at the European Association of Urology conference 2017 in London, UK. Immunotherapy has been developed in patients with advanced disease failing first- or second-line treatment. Dr Bellmunt explains that based on the results seen, immunotherapy is now being moved to earlier phases of the disease and as a first-line treatment in patients with metastatic disease, patients ineligible for chemotherapy, or in an adjuvant or neoadjucant setting. Looking forward, Dr Bellmunt explains that biomarkers are being identified which will allow patients who are going to benefit from immunotherapy treatments to be enriched. He also highlights the developments in “smart” combination approaches, such as the combination of the two different checkpoint inhibitors.
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