Genitourinary Cancer and Testicular Cancer

Testicular cancer accounts for just 1% of all cancers that occur in men, but is the most common type of cancer in men aged 15–49 years. Factors that may increase the risk of testicular cancer include cryptorchidism and abnormal testicle development. Given the relatively young age at onset of disease, environmental exposures in utero and early-in-life are also considered risk factors.

Types of testicular cancer are classified according to the type of cells affected. The majority of cases, around 95%, are germ cell testicular cancers. The two main subtypes of germ cell testicular cancer are seminomas, which account for 40–45% of testicular cancers, and non-seminomas, including teratomas, embryonal carcinomas, choriocarcinomas, and yolk sac tumors. Treatment depends on the type and stage of testicular cancer and almost always includes surgery. In some cases, chemotherapy or, less commonly, radiotherapy may be used.

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