Arturo Chiti, MD, FEBNM of Humanitas University, Milan, Italy discusses his talk on molecular imaging for targeted therapy at the 2016 National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) Conference in Liverpool, UK. Prof. Chiti explains that targeted therapies are very popular as they can be very effective. It is, however, difficult to identify patients who will respond to targeted therapy. Imaging can play a key role in identifying patients. Molecular imaging is able to demonstrate molecular processes inside the patient and therefore, can be very useful. The most effective techniques are positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). He further points out the issue of cost; these targeted therapies can be very expensive and therefore giving the right therapy to the right patient is important.