Francisco Sanchez-Vega, PhD, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, discusses a recent study which investigated whether the presence of certain microbial species in the rectum could impact the effectiveness of neoadjuvant treatment in patients with locally advanced rectal adenocarcinoma. The study sequenced material from endoscopic biopsies which was taken before neoadjuvant treatment. Transcriptomic analysis identified certain microbial species and some associations with clinical features were found, such as the location of these species within the rectum. There was also some association found with certain microbial species and clinical outcomes, such as time to recurrence after neoadjuvant treatment. This interview took place at the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting in New Orleans, LA.