Aadel Chaudhuri, MD, PhD, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, USA, discusses two recent studies from his lab, investigating how liquid biopsy could be used in the diagnosis and treatment of bladder cancer. The first study, in the field of pediatric oncology, investigated how liquid biopsy of blood plasma could be used to detect early malignancies in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). The second study analysed liquid biopsies of urine from patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer just before they underwent radical cystectomy. The aim of this study was to see if liquid biopsy could be used to identify patients who were responding well-enough to the neo-adjuvant treatments to avoid undergoing the life-changing surgery. This interview took place at the International Society of Liquid Biopsy (ISLB) 2021 Virtual Meeting.