Michael Atkins, MD, from the Georgetown Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Washington, DC, discusses recent trials in the treatment of metastatic kidney cancer at the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) 2017 in Madrid, Spain. The CheckMate 124 study (NCT02231749) compared nivolumab plus ipilimumab with sunitinib. It found that the combination of nivolumab plus ipilimumab led to higher response rates, progression free survival and overall survival compared to sunitinib, especially in patients with poor risk clinical factors relating to their tumor. The IMmotion151 study (NCT02420821) investigated the combination of atezolizumab plus bevacizumab compared with sunitinib. This trial also found sunitinib to be less superior to the combination. These findings were further validated by the CABOSUN study (NCT01835158), a comparison of cabozantinib and sunitinib.