Robert Coleman, MBBS, MD, FRCP, FRCPE of Sheffield Cancer Research, University of Sheffield, UK gives an overview of a debate discussing new drug development vs repurposing existing drugs. Dr Coleman points out that the drug development process is no longer fit for purpose, with new drugs being too expensive to afford. The way to proceed could be to repurpose existing drugs, based on the available evidence and new clinical trials. The opposite view focuses on progress, innovation, and optimism, as without drug discovery there would be no drugs to repurpose. Dr Coleman finishes by saying that a mixture of both approaches is required. Recorded at the 2016 National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) Conference in Liverpool, UK.