Robert Pirker, MD at the Medical University of Vienna, Austria and President of the World Conference on Lung Cancer (WCLC16) outlines the key highlights of the WCLC16 congress. Key advances discussed during the conference include the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors in the treatment of lung cancer, as well as advances in targeted therapies and emerging combinations of various therapies. Dr Pirker also highlighted that, in order to provide the right treatment, it is necessary to accurately understand tumor characteristics through TNM staging and molecular analysis. Updated guidelines for TNM staging were presented at the conference and will be implemented in January 2017. Also, various discussions focused on the molecular analysis of tumors and the identification of predictive biomarkers that will determine which patients will benefit from targeted- and immune- therapies. Recorded at the 2016 World Congress of Lung Cancer (WCLC) of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) in Vienna, Austria.